In January 1965, he underwent a series of x-rays for an infection on the roof of his mouth.  In 2019, Laurel topped a list of the greatest British comedians compiled by a panel on the television channel Gold. Rock thought that her temperament was hindering Laurel's career. Hij woonde de laatste jaren van zijn leven in een klein appartement in het Oceana Hotel in Santa Monica. Sie gelten als eines der berühmtesten und erfolgreichsten Film-Duos aller Zeiten.  In 1989, a statue of Laurel was erected in Dockwray Square, North Shields, Tyne and Wear, England, where he lived at No.  With a natural affinity for the theatre, Laurel gave his first professional performance on stage at the Panopticon in Glasgow at the age of sixteen, where he polished his skills at pantomime and music hall sketches. Starting early in 1927, Laurel and Hardy began sharing the screen in several short films, including Duck Soup, Slipping Wives and With Love and Hisses.  In 2008, a statue of Stan Laurel was unveiled in Bishop Auckland, County Durham, on the site of the Eden Theatre. 1.8K likes. Stan Laurel was an English comedian and actor who was one half of the ‘Laurel and Hardy’ comedy duo. Hij bleef trouw aan zijn fans; zo sleet hij zijn dagen met het beantwoorden van brieven en telefoongesprekken. Als Stan Laurel een schuifraam op zijn hoofd krijgt, blijkt hij opeens de briljante geleerde Lord Paddington te zijn, die ooit na een soortgelijk ongeluk zijn geheugen verloor. In 2017 werd in het Fries Film Archief in Leeuwarden een 35mm nitraatfilm ontdekt, die een verloren gewaand fragment bevatte uit het tweede deel van de film Detained uit 1924. There are two Laurel and Hardy museums in Hardy's hometown of Harlem, Georgia. In 1955, they were planning to do a television series called Laurel and Hardy's Fabulous Fables based on children's stories. " He was interred in Forest Lawn–Hollywood Hills Cemetery. Laurel or Hardy: Early Films of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy traces the roots of the legendary DELUXE 2-DISC BLU-RAY EDITION AVAILABLE FOR PRE-ORDER ONLY RELEASE DATE: JANUARY 12TH, 2021 ANY ORDERS OF THE ALREADY RELEASED ITEMS FROM OUR CATALOGUE PURCHASED AT THE SAME TIME AS THIS PRE-ORDER ITEM, WILL ALL BE … At the time, Laurel's second marriage was in the process of a divorce, with Dahlberg's legal suit adding to Laurel's woes. Eventually, the case was dropped and Laurel returned to Roach. Laurel en Hardy, of Stan en Ollie zoals ze ook wel worden genoemd, waren een Brits-Amerikaans komisch duo uit de eerste helft van de twintigste eeuw.In het Nederlands hebben ze de bijnaam De dikke en de dunne.. Laurel en Hardy vormden een van de populairste komische duo's uit de filmgeschiedenis.  The 12 two-reel comedies were Mandarin Mix-Up (1924), Detained (1924), Monsieur Don't Care (1924), West of Hot Dog (1924), Somewhere in Wrong (1925), Twins (1925), Pie-Eyed (1925), The Snow Hawk (1925), Navy Blue Days (1925), The Sleuth (1925), Dr. Pyckle and Mr. Pryde (1925) and Half a Man (1925). Het antwoord is complex en ontwapenend: we zien twee mannen die … Harmon had been developing the series since 1961, while Stan Laurel was still alive, although Laurel had very little involvement. In May 1954, Hardy had a heart attack and cancelled the tour. Laurel werkte nadien enkel nog als producer en scriptschrijver voor andere komieken. The correspondence, spanning around 50 years and including photos of them being reunited in the US, was put up for auction by Mr Desmond's grandson Geoffrey Nolan in 2018. Laurel and Hardy were a comedy duo who rose to fame during the Classical Hollywood era. Geboren am 16. Laurel was gedurende zijn leven een kettingroker, tot hij op zijn zeventigste plotseling besloot te stoppen. In the 2018 film Stan & Ollie, Steve Coogan portrayed Laurel (a performance which saw him nominated for the BAFTA for Best Actor in a Leading Role) and John C. Reilly played Hardy. 14-jul-2016 - Bekijk het bord 'Stan Laurel en Oliver Hardy' van Pieter Kalter, dat wordt gevolgd door 102 personen op Pinterest. " The tour included a Royal Variety Performance in front of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in London. He was a member of "Fred Karno's Army", where he was Charlie Chaplin's understudy. Stan Laurel, echte naam Arthur Stanley Jefferson (Ulverston, 16 juni 1890 — Santa Monica, 23 februari 1965) was een Brits filmacteur die het bekendst werd als de 'dunne' helft van het komische duo Laurel en Hardy Biografie Jonge jaren. Laurel and Mae Dahlberg never married but lived together as common-law husband and wife from 1919 to 1925, before Dahlberg accepted a one-way ticket from Joe Rock to go back to her native Australia. Op Laurels begrafenis hield Dick Van Dyke een toespraak. on tour in Netherlands and Belgium as a comedy double act known as the Barto Bros. Their act, which involved them dressing as Romans, finished when Laurel was offered a spot in an American touring troupe. Robson, 2005 Retrieved: 18 June 2012. 1921 sowie zwischen 1926 und 1951 drehten sie zusammen 107 Filme (80 Kurzfilme, 27 Spielfilme), Gastauftritte mit eingerechnet. Laurel wurde berühmt durch seine künstlerische Partnerschaft mit Oliver Hardy, mit dem er das weltbekannte Komikerduo Laurel und Hardy bildete, das im deutschsprachigen Raum auch als Dick und Doof bekannt ist. Laurel & Hardy Box/Stan Laurel & Oliver Hardy: het is misleiding. Links Zoek naar deze film op dvd/blu-ray op Amazon IMDb (7,4 / … It was Mae who suggested he change his stage name to Stan Laurel. 23 lutego 1965 w Santa Monica, Kalifornia) – angielski komik, scenarzysta i reżyser.W 1960 roku został uhonorowany Oscarem za wybitne osiągnięcia w twórczości filmowej.. Znany głównie z filmów z Oliverem Hardym, z którym stworzyli popularną serię komediową Flip i Flap. Les études scolaires lassent très vite le jeune Jefferson, qui ne rêve que de « monter sur les planches ». McCabe 2005, p. 143. But behind the act were failed marriages, health problems, and financial ruin. They also appeared in their first feature in one of the revue sequences of The Hollywood Revue of 1929, and the following year they appeared as the comic relief in the lavish all-colour (in Technicolor) musical feature The Rogue Song. The music hall nurtured him, and he acted as Chaplin's understudy for some time. Laurel found, to his shock, that he and Hardy were hired only as actors, and were not expected to contribute to the staging, writing, or editing of the productions. The new marriage was very volatile, and Illeana accused him of trying to bury her alive in the backyard of their San Fernando Valley home. He appeared with his comedy partner Oliver Hardy in 107 short films, feature films, and cameo roles. 163 aanbiedingen in februari - Koop en verkoop stan laurel en oliver hardy eenvoudig op Marktplaats Lokale aanbiedingen - Ga ervoor! Juni 1890 in Ulverston, hatte Stanley sehr früh Kontakt zum Theater: Seine Eltern waren Schauspieler und Theaterbesitzer. In 1952, Laurel and Hardy toured Europe successfully, and they returned in 1953 for another tour of the continent.  His first wife was Lois Neilson, whom he married on 13 August 1926.  Laurel bleef in de VS als vaudeville-artiest achter en speelde incidenteel in een film. Their first starring feature Pardon Us was released in 1931.  He appeared with his comedy partner Oliver Hardy in 107 short films, feature films, and cameo roles..  Van dit fragment was wel een beschrijving bekend, de Hanging Scene, maar dat was uit de originele film geknipt, waardoor in de kopieën dit fragment ook ontbreekt. The team had signed another contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1942, resulting in two more features.. Hij nam op haar aandringen officieel de artiestennaam Stan Laurel aan. It had been his intention to work primarily as a writer and director. Laurel and Hardy is a 1966-1967 American animated television series and an updated version of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy's comedic acts by the animation studio Hanna-Barbera and Larry Harmon Productions. Washington, D.C., 1989, "The Making of Stan Laurel: Echoes of a British Boyhood", "Stan Laurel crowned Britain's greatest comedian", "Stan Laurel's former Bishop Auckland school 'left to rot, "Stan Laurel letter set to go under the hammer", "Another fine missive: Stan Laurel's letters on sale", "Stan Laurel's little-known comedy partner before Hardy who missed out on glory", "Tea and buns with Laurel and Hardy: Derek Malcolm on the day he met his comedy heroes", "Stan at Queen's first Royal Variety Show", "Stan Laurel's stormy marriage full of off-screen drama.  On 6 May 1946, he married Ida Kitaeva Raphael to whom he remained married until his death. Zijn laatste solo film was Should Tall Men Marry? In 1960 kreeg Laurel een Oscar vanwege al zijn prestaties op het gebied van komedie. Laurel was too ill to attend his funeral and said, "Babe would understand". Son père ne contrarie pas sa vocation et, dès 1905, l'aide à trouver ses premiers rôles5. , A plaque on the Bull Inn, Bottesford, Leicestershire, England, marks Laurel and Hardy appearing in Nottingham over Christmas 1952, and staying with Laurel's sister, Olga, who was the landlady of the pub. His daughter Lois died on (2017-07-27)27 July 2017 aged 89. Mensen die hem kenden beweerden dat Laurel zwaar aangeslagen was door de dood van Hardy, en deze nooit geheel heeft kunnen verwerken. Nachdem die Karno-Truppe 1910 erstmals durch die USA tourte, führte der Weg 1912 wieder nach Amerika. In 1921 werkte hij al incidenteel een keer samen met zijn toekomstige partner Oliver Hardy in de stomme film The Lucky Dog.  Developed by BBC Films, the film is set in the twilight of their careers, and focuses on their farewell tour of Britain and Ireland's variety halls in 1953. Van Dyke played Laurel on "The Sam Pomerantz Scandals" episode of The Dick Van Dyke Show. ", "Lois Laurel Hawes, Daughter of Stan Laurel, Dies at 89", "Stormy marriage full of off-screen drama for Stan Laurel", "Stan Laurel Dies. Die Comedy-Genies, in Deutschland auch bekannt als "Dick und Doof", waren weit mehr als das. , Laurel had four wives and married one of them a second time after their divorce. De eerste was Nuts in May in 1917.  He and Illeana separated in 1939 and divorced in 1940, with Illeana surrendering all claim to the Laurel surname on 1 February 1940 in exchange for $6,500. In 1918, he met actress Mae Dahlberg, who became his common law wife, as she was still married in her native Australia. Stan joined with two other former Karno performers, Edgar Hurley and his wife Ethel (known as "Wren") to form "The Three Comiques". 8 from 1897 to 1902. After making his first film Nuts in May, Universal offered him a contract. Stan Laurel war die treibende Kraft von \"Laurel und Hardy\". [N 1] The pair were performing together when Laurel was offered $75 a week to star in two-reel comedies. Sowohl für Charlie Chaplin als auch für Stan Laurel war diese zukunftsweisend: Chaplin wurde von dem Filmproduzenten Mack Sennett entdeckt und engagiert. They had made six Fox features when the studio suddenly abandoned B-picture production in December 1944. In 1941, Laurel and Hardy signed a contract at 20th Century-Fox to make ten films over five years. They continued to make both features and shorts until 1935, including their 1932 three-reeler The Music Box, which won an Academy Award for Best Short Subject. Je vindt hier films van Laurel alleen en Hardy alleen uit de tijd dat ze nog geen duo waren. Hij woonde Hardy’s begrafenis niet bij wegens ziekte, en volgens eigen zeggen zou Hardy het wel begrijpen. The studio discussed a series of films co-starring Hardy with Patsy Kelly to be called "The Hardy Family." Laurel und Hardy waren ein britisch-amerikanisches Komiker-Duo, das aus Stan Laurel und Oliver Hardy bestand. Read this biography to know his birthday, childhood, achievements, family …  In April 2009, a bronze statue of Laurel and Hardy was unveiled in Ulverston.. Als der britische Komiker vor 50 Jahren starb, sagte sein Kollege Buster Keaton: \"Chaplin war nicht der Lustigste, ich war nicht der Lustigste, dieser Mann war der lustigste!\" Together they had a daughter Lois on (1927-12-10)10 December 1927. Ollie wordt de bediende van de Lord. June 16 His phone number was also listed in the telephone directory and he would take calls from fans..  Laurel was gracious to fans and spent much time answering fan mail. He was one of five children. On the advice of booking agent Gordon Bostock, they call themselves "the Keystone Trio".  In November 1937, Dahlberg was back in the US and sued Laurel for financial support. Subsequently, they made Saps at Sea, which was their last film for Roach. The film was a disaster, a Franco-Italian co-production titled Atoll K. (The film was entitled Utopia in the US and Robinson Crusoeland in the UK.) 3 talking about this. The play, starring Holland as Laurel, was taken on tour of the UK in 2014 until June 2015.. Karno geriet daraufhin in große Schwierigkeiten (Verträge platzten, schnell zusammengeschusterte Shows floppten) und so stand auch Stan Laurel alias Stanley Jefferson plötzlich auf der Straße. Dit contract hield echter niet lang stand vanwege een reorganisatie binnen Universal. ", "Raw footage of Stan Laurels funeral with Dick Van Dyke, Buster Keaton and more", "BBC Four Cinema - Silent Cinema Season. In his early years, Laurel spent much time living with his maternal grandmother, Sarah Metcalfe. Ook maakten ze theatershows in zowel Amerika als Europa. He was not called up; his registration card states his status as resident alien and his deafness as exemptions.. Upon returning to the United States, they spent most of their time recovering. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In a 2005 UK poll, Comedians' Comedian, Laurel and Hardy were ranked top double act, and seventh overall. There is a Laurel and Hardy Museum in Stan's hometown of Ulverston.  Between 1916 and 1918, he teamed up with Alice Cooke and Baldwin Cooke, who became his lifelong friends, to form the Stan Jefferson Trio. De twee traden tot 1951 op in 106 korte en lange films. On New Year's Day 1938, Laurel married Vera Ivanova Shuvalova (known as Illeana), and Ruth accused him of bigamy, but their divorce had been finalised a couple of days before his new marriage. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, together with their new leading lady, Mary the monkey, exemplify the motto, See no evil, hear no evil and speak no evil. He lived his final years in a small flat in the Oceana Apartments in Santa Monica, California. Hardy, gemakzuchtig van nature, wimpelde vragen over zaken als productie en scenario's meestal af met "Ask Stan." I wasn't the funniest; this man was the funniest." In 1926 (zij het pas officieel in 1927) begon zijn samenwerking met Oliver Hardy bij de Hal Roach-studio. , In 1935, Laurel married Virginia Ruth Rogers (known as Ruth). Ontdek de perfecte stockfoto's over Stan Laurel en redactionele nieuwsbeelden van Getty Images Kies uit premium Stan Laurel van de hoogste kwaliteit.  He then appeared exclusively with Hardy until retiring following his comedy partner's death in 1957.  The Evening Mail noted: "Oliver Hardy remarked to our reporter that Stan had talked about Ulverston for the past 22 years and he thought he had to see it.  Dahlberg was described as a "relief project worker" by the court. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 18 jan 2021 om 16:55. ", "Laurel proves Hardy after disaster delays: Statue of Laurel arrives in Bishop Auckland.  He and Chaplin arrived in the United States on the same ship from the United Kingdom with the Karno troupe. Hij kreeg een contract bij Joe Rock voor twaalf korte films. ", "Hundreds attend Laurel and Hardy statue unveiling", "Steve Coogan and John C. Reilly will be Laurel and Hardy in Stan & Ollie", The Making of Stan Laurel: Echoes of a British Boyhood, The Stan Laurel Correspondence Archive Project, Fra Diavolo / The Devil's Brother / Bogus Bandits, The All New Adventures of Laurel & Hardy in For Love or Mummy, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stan_Laurel&oldid=1004115799, British expatriate male actors in the United States, People educated at The King's School, Tynemouth, Burials at Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills), Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Turner Classic Movies person ID same as Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 February 2021, at 03:45. One is operated by the town of Harlem, and the other is a private museum owned and operated by Gary Russeth, a Harlem resident. The contract had one unusual stipulation: that Dahlberg was not to appear in any of the films. Amongst other performers, Laurel worked briefly alongside Oliver Hardy in the silent film short The Lucky Dog (1921), before the two were a team. In 1924 deed Laurel afstand van het theater om zich geheel op een carrière als filmacteur te richten.  During the First World War, Laurel registered for military service in America on 5 June 1917, as required under the Selective Service Act. Rond dezelfde tijd ontmoette Laurel Mae Dahlberg, die een grote invloed had op zijn leven. The steps down from the Square to the North Shields Fish Quay were said to have inspired the piano-moving scene in The Music Box. Hij werd geboren in het huis van zijn grootouders in 3 Argyle Street, Ulverston.  Op 6 mei 1946 trouwde hij voor de laatste keer, deze keer met Ida Kitaeva Raphael, met wie hij tot zijn dood getrouwd bleef. Het contract stelde echter dat Dahlberg niet in deze films mee mocht spelen.  Mobbed wherever they went, Laurel's homecoming to Ulverston took place in May, and the duo were greeted by thousands of fans outside the Coronation Hall. Fanpage di Stanlio e Ollio, in inglese Laurel & Hardy, è stato un famoso duo comico del cinema slapstick zoals The Flying Deuces en Pick A Star, die in het publieke domein zijn waardoor IEDEREEN die een kopie heeft deze commercieel kan uitbuiten. Bekijk meer ideeën over filmsterren, film, beroemdheden. Hij ligt begraven op het Forest Lawn Memorial Park in de Hollywood Hills. They played successfully from February through October 1915, until the Hurleys and Stan parted ways. , His parents were both active in the theatre and always very busy. Laurel began his career in music hall, where he developed a number of his standard comic devices, including the bowler hat, the deep comic gravity, and the nonsensical understatement. He appeared with his comic partner Oliver Hardy in the film short The Lucky Dog in 1921, although they did not become an official team until late 1927.  In 1941, Laurel remarried Virginia Ruth Rogers; they were divorced for the second time in early 1946. Laurel and Hardy successfully made the transition to talking films with the short Unaccustomed As We Are in 1929. The plans were delayed after Laurel suffered a stroke on 25 April 1955, from which he recovered. Beiden hadden al een solocarrière achter de rug voordat zij in 1927 voor het … Jerry Lewis was among the comedians to visit Laurel, and Lewis received suggestions from him for the production of The Bellboy (1960).  He attended school at King James I Grammar School in Bishop Auckland, County Durham, and the King's School in Tynemouth, Northumberland. When the films proved very successful, Laurel and Hardy were granted more freedom and gradually added more of their own material. , He joined Fred Karno's troupe of actors in 1910 with the stage name of "Stan Jefferson"; the troupe also included a young Charlie Chaplin. Laurel next signed with the Hal Roach studio, where he began directing films, including a 1926 production called Yes, Yes, Nanette (in which Oliver Hardy had a part under the name "Babe" Hardy). The first film that Laurel and Hardy made after Laurel returned was A Chump at Oxford. Stan Laurel, właśc.Arthur Stanley Jefferson (ur.16 czerwca 1890 w Ulverston, Wielka Brytania, zm. In 1960 werd aan Stan Laurel een Ere-Oscar toegekend. Stan Laurel (born Arthur Stanley Jefferson; 16 June 1890 – 23 February 1965) was an English comic actor, writer, and film director who was part of the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy. Stan Laurel (born Arthur Stanley Jefferson; 16 June 1890 – 23 February 1965) was an English comic actor, writer, and film director who was part of the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy. , At his funeral, Buster Keaton said, "Chaplin wasn't the funniest. His boyhood hero was Dan Leno, one of the greatest English music hall comedians.  In 2009, a bronze statue of the duo was unveiled in Laurel's home town of Ulverston. The two became friends and their comic chemistry soon became obvious.  The success of the tour led them to spend the next seven years touring the UK and Europe. Ook een paar waarin ze wel het duo vormen. Together, the two men began producing a huge body of short films, including The Battle of the Century, Should Married Men Go Home?, Two Tars, Be Big!, Big Business, and many others. By 1924, Laurel had given up the stage for full-time film work, under contract with Joe Rock for 12 two-reel comedies.  Laurel began his film career in 1917 and made his final appearance in 1951. In 2006, BBC Four showed a drama called Stan, based on Brand's radio play, in which Laurel meets Hardy on his deathbed and reminisces about their career. But as the team was planning to get back to work, Hardy had another stroke on 14 September 1956, and was unable to return to acting. He just taught us most of it". They would live together until 1925, when Mae decided to return to Australia. Their second child, Stanley was born two months premature in May 1930, but died after nine days. After Laurel left England for America the pair maintained a life-long friendship, sending letters and photos that documented Laurel's rise from an unknown British comedy actor in 1913 to one of the biggest names in Hollywood in the 1950s. Tevens studeerde hij een tijdje aan de Rutherglen Academy..  Laurels ouders hadden het vaak druk met hun werk, waardoor Laurel de eerste jaren van zijn leven vooral bij zijn grootmoeder, Sarah Metcalfe, doorbracht. When he was just starting his career, he looked up Laurel's phone number, called him, and then visited him at his home. Because he was unable to work on the scheduled film, Get 'Em Young, Laurel was asked to return to acting to fill in. In 1960, Laurel was given an Academy Honorary Award for his pioneering work in comedy, and he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. He did not want to be on screen in his old age, especially without Hardy. Tussen 1916 en 1918 trad Laurel een paar keer op met Alice en Baldwin Cooke, met wie hij de rest van zijn leven goede vrienden bleef. His performances polished his skills at pantomime and music hall sketches. Die filmische Hommage gewährt auch Einblicke in das Privatleben des Duos. Stan Laurel overleed op 74-jarige leeftijd, enkele dagen nadat hij een hartaanval had gehad. Teamed With Oliver Hardy in 200 Slapstick Films-Played 'Simple' Foil. Stan et Ollie (Stan & Ollie) est un film biographique américano-britannico-canadien réalisé par Jon S. Baird, sorti en 2018.Il s'agit d'un portrait du duo comique Laurel et Hardy , He moved with his parents to Glasgow, Scotland, where he completed his education at Rutherglen Academy. The matter was settled out of court. In 1926 trouwde Stan met zijn eerste vrouw, Lois Neilson. He refused to perform on stage or act in another film without his friend, although he continued to socialise with his fans. Arthur Jefferson est issu d'une famille de gens du spectacle ; sa mère Madge Metcalfe3 et son père Arthur J. Jefferson4 sont acteurs de théâtre. Later speelden zij ook, aanvankelijk met tegenzin, in gesproken films. It was around this time that Laurel met Mae Dahlberg. Laurel and Neilson divorced in December 1934.  Laurel had quipped, "If anyone at my funeral has a long face, I'll never speak to him again. In 1950, Laurel and Hardy were invited to France to make a feature film. Hij trouwde later in zijn leven nog drie keer, waaronder twee keer met Virginia Ruth Rogers. His father managed Glasgow's Metropole Theatre, where Laurel began work.  Minutes before his death, he told his nurse that he would not mind going skiing, and she replied that she was not aware that he was a skier. Among the films in which Dahlberg and Laurel appeared together was the 1922 parody Mud and Sand. Gedurende hun samenwerking was Laurel het creatieve brein van het tweetal. The contract was soon cancelled during a reorganisation at the studio. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy's slapstick comedy dominated the 1930s, as they appeared in 107 films and earned an Academy Award.  Along with Hardy, Laurel was inducted into the Grand Order of Water Rats. A few minutes later he died quietly in his armchair.  It was the music hall from where he drew his standard comic devices, including his bowler hat and nonsensical understatement.